1. Adding Insult to Injury. A review of the care of patients who died in hospital with a primary diagnosis of acute kidney injury (acute renal failure). National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death (NCEPOD). 2009.
  2. UK Renal Association Clinical Practice Guideline on Acute Kidney Injury. 2011.
  3. Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Clinical Practice Guideline for Acute Kidney Injury. 2011.
  4. National Institute For Clinical Excellence (NICE) Clinical Guideline 50: Recognition and Response to Acute Illness in Adults in Hospital.
  5. Imaging for Acute Kidney Injury (acute renal failure): Good Practice Recommendations from the National Imaging Board. 2010.
  6. British Consensus Guidelines on Intravenous Fluid Therapy for Adult Surgical Patients. BAPEN Medical, the Association for Clinical Biochemistry, the Association of Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland, the Society of Academic and Research Surgery, the UK Renal Association and the Intensive Care Society. 2008 - update 2011.
  7. Pre-operative Assessment and Patient Preparation: The Role of The Anesthetist. The Association of Anesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland. 2010.
  8. Guidelines for the Transfer of the Critically Ill Adult. UK Intensive Care Society. 3rd Edition 2011.


  • We would like to thank Chris Kirwan for his help in preparing the sections on perioperative acute kidney injury
  • We would like to thank Nick Macartney and Jeremy Dawson for for their help with the bundle checklist